Ovarian Cancer - Causes, Sign & Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment
After cancer of the lung, breast, and colon, primary ovarian cancer ranks as the most common cause of cancer deaths among American women. In women with previously treated breast cancer, metastatic ovarian cancer is more common than cancer at any other site.
The prognosis vades with the histologic type and stage 6r the disease but is generally poor because ovarian tumors produce few early signs and are usually advanced at diagnosis. Although about 40% of women with ovarian cancer survive for 5 years, the overall survival rate hasn't improved significantly.
Three main types of ovarian cancer exist:
Causes of ovarian cancer
Exactly what causes ovarian cancer isn't known, but its incidence is noticeably higher in women of upper socioeconomic levels between the ages of20 and 54. However, it can occur during childhood. Other contributing factors include age at menopause; infertility; celibacy; high-fat diet; exposure to asbestos, talc, and industrial pollutants; nulliparity; familial tendency; and history of breast or uterine cancer.
Primary epithelial tumors arise in the miillerian epithelium; germ cell tumors, in the ovum itself; and sex cord tumors, in the ovarian stroma (the ovary's supporting framework).
Ovarian tumors spread rapidly intraperitoneally by local extension or surface seeding and, occasionally, through the lymphatics and the bloodstream. Generally, extraperitoneal spread is through the diaphragm into the chest cavity, which may cause pleural effusions. Other types of metastasis are rare.
Signs and symptoms
Typically, symptoms vary with the size of the tumor. Occasionally, in the early stages, ovarian cancer causes vague abdominal discomfort, dyspepsia, and other mild Gl disturbances. As it progresses, it causes urinary frequency, constipation, pelvic discomfort, abdominal distention, and weight loss.
Tumor rupture, torsion, or infection may cause pain, which, in young patients, may mimic appendicitis. Granulosa cell tumors have feminizing effects (such as bleeding between periods in premenopausal women); conversely, arrhenoblastomas have virilizing effects. Advanced ovarian cancer causes ascites, rarely postmenopausal bleeding and pain, and symptoms relating to metastatic sites (most often pleural effusions.
Diagnosis of mastitis and breast engorgementIn ovarian cancer, diagnosis requires clinical evaluation, a complete patient history, surgical exploration, and histologic studies. Preoperative evaluation includes a complete physical examination, including pelvic examination with Pap smear (Positive in only a small number of women with ovarian cancer) and the following special tests:
Treatment of mastitis and breast engorgement
Depending on the stage of the disease and the patient's age, treatment of ovarian cancer requires varying combinations of surgery, chemotherapy and, in some cases, radiation.
Occasionally, in girls or young women with a unilateral encapsulated tumor who wish to maintain fertility, the following conservative approach may be appropriate:
Ovarian cancer usually requires more aggressive treatment, including total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with tumor resection, omentectomy, appendectomy, lymph node biopsies with lymphadenectomy, tissue biopsies, and peritoneal washings.
Complete tumor resection is impossible if the tumor has matted around other organs or if it involves organs that can't be resected. Bilateral salpingooophorectomy in a prepubertal girl necessitates hormone replacement therapy, beginning at puberty, to induce the development of secondary sex characteristics.Chemotherapy extends survival time in most ovarian cancer patients. Unfortunately, it is largely palliative in advanced disease, but prolonged remissions are being achieved in some patients.
Chemotherapeutic drugs useful in ovarian cancer include melphalan, chlorambucil, thiotepa, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, vinblastine, dactinomycin, bleomycin, paclitaxel, and cisplatin. These drugs are usually given in combination and they may be administered intraperitoneally.
Radiation therapy is generally not used for ovarian cancer because the resulting myelosuppression would limit the effectiveness of chemotherapy.
Radioisotopes have been used as adjuvant therapy, but they cause smallbowel obstructions and stenosis.
In addition, I. V. administration of biological response modifiers - inter leukin-2, interferon, and monoclonal antibodies - is currently being investigated.
Special considerations If the patient has mastitis:
Because the treatment of ovarian cancer varies widely, so must the care of the patient.
CLINICAL TIP If the patient is receiving immunotherapy, watch for flu like symptoms that may last 12 to 24 hours after drug administration. Give aspirin or acetaminophen for fever. Keep the patient well covered with blankets, and provide warm liquids to relieve chills. Administer an antiemetic as needed.
Cosmetics Home || Beauty & Cosmetics Articles || Contact Us || Cosmetics Shopping
(c)Copyright Bestincosmetics.com All rights reserved.